Glaucoma Treatment- Minimally Invasive Surgery

Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that result in degeneration of the optic nerve and permanent loss of vision if not treated in time. Book Consultation with the best Glaucoma doctors in India

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Glaucoma surgery is a surgical procedure aimed at managing and treating glaucoma, a group of eye conditions characterized by damage to the optic nerve and progressive loss of vision. Glaucoma is often associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP), and the goal of surgery is to reduce this pressure to prevent further damage to the optic nerve and preserve vision. Here’s an overview of glaucoma surgery, the treatment process, and potential causes:

Causes: The primary cause of glaucoma is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which can occur due to:

  1. Impaired Drainage: In open-angle glaucoma, the drainage system within the eye (trabecular meshwork) becomes less efficient, leading to increased pressure.
  2. Narrowing Angle: In angle-closure glaucoma, the angle between the cornea and iris becomes too narrow, obstructing the flow of aqueous humor and causing pressure buildup.
  3. Genetics: Family history of glaucoma increases the risk of developing the condition.
  4. Age: The risk of glaucoma increases with age, especially after the age of 40.
  5. Certain Medical Conditions: Diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain autoimmune disorders can increase the risk of glaucoma.

Treatment Process: Glaucoma surgery aims to lower intraocular pressure to prevent further optic nerve damage and vision loss. There are several surgical options available:

  1. Trabeculectomy: In this procedure, a small flap is created in the sclera (white part of the eye), allowing excess aqueous humor to drain out of the eye and reduce intraocular pressure.
  2. Tube Shunt Surgery: A small tube or shunt is implanted in the eye to create a new drainage pathway, diverting excess fluid to a reservoir and reducing pressure.
  3. Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS): These are newer techniques that involve creating micro-incisions to improve aqueous outflow and reduce pressure. Examples include iStent, CyPass, and Kahook Dual Blade procedures.
  4. Laser Surgery: Laser procedures like selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and laser peripheral iridotomy can help improve drainage or widen the drainage angle to lower pressure.

Recovery and Aftercare: After glaucoma surgery, individuals may experience discomfort, blurry vision, and sensitivity to light for a few days. Follow-up appointments are essential to monitor the progress of the surgery and ensure proper healing. It’s important to:

  • Use prescribed eye drops and medications to prevent infection, reduce inflammation, and manage intraocular pressure.
  • Avoid activities that could put pressure on the eyes, such as heavy lifting and straining.

Outcomes and Considerations: The success of glaucoma surgery depends on the individual’s specific condition, the type of glaucoma, and other factors. While surgery can effectively lower intraocular pressure and slow down the progression of the disease, it might not completely restore lost vision.

Regular eye exams, early detection, and proper management are crucial for preserving vision and preventing further damage from glaucoma.

If you have been diagnosed with glaucoma or are at risk, it’s important to consult with an experienced ophthalmologist or glaucoma specialist to determine the best treatment plan for your specific situation. Early intervention and consistent follow-up care are key to managing the condition effectively.

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